ABC Gallery, Dali, Salvador, Salvador Dali, World's, Painters, Great Artist, Largest, Online, Fine, Velázquez, Art, Gallery, artchive, abc gallery, gallery abc, black goya painting, beautiful pictures, cezanne, caravaggio, Images, fine art tattoos, fine art tattoo, added, picaso,goya paintings, rose period, blue period, early works, daily, 畢加索 , piccasso, picaso, from, Picasso, to, Pissaro, and, Bernini, to, Bellini, Over, 14,000, images, of, oil, paintings, from, Abstract Expressionists African Art ALTDORFER American Art Ancient Art ARDON ARP Art Nouveau AVERY BACON BAILEY BALLA BALTHUS Baroque BASQUIAT Bauhaus BAUMEISTER BAZILLE BEARDSLEY BECKMANN BELLINI BELLOTTO BELLOWS BERNINI BEUYS BIERSTADT BINGHAM BLAKE BLUEMNER BOCCIONI BÖCKLIN BOHROD BONNARD BOSCH BOTERO BOTTICELLI BOUDIN BOUGUEREAU BRANCUSI BRAQUE BRONZINO BROWN BRUCE BRUEGEL BURCHFIELD BURNE-JONES CAILLEBOTTE CAMPIN CANALETTO CARAVAGGIO CARR CARRACCI CASSATT Cave Paintings CÉZANNE CHAGALL CHARDIN CHIHULY Chinese Art CHURCH CIMABUE CLEMENTE COLE CONSTABLE Contemporary COPLEY CORINTH CORNELL COROT CORREGGIO COURBET CRANACH CRIVELLI Cubism Dada DALÍ DAUBIGNY DAUMIER DAVID, G DAVID, J- L DE CHIRICO DE HOOCH DE KOONING DE LA TOUR DEGAS DELACROIX DELAUNAY DEMUTH DERAIN DIEBENKORN DONATELLO DONGEN DOVE DUBUFFET DUCHAMP DUFY DURAND DÜRER EAKINS Egyptian Art EL GRECO ERNST ESCHER Expressionism FISCHL FRA ANGELICO FRA CARNEVALE FRAGONARD FRANKENTHALER FREUD FRIEDRICH FUSELI Futurism GAINSBOROUGH GAUDI GAUGUIN GENTILESCHI GERICAULT GHIBERTI GHIRLANDAIO GIACOMETTI GIORGIONE GIOTTO GLACKENS GOES GOODMAN GOYA GRAY Greek Art GRIS Group of Seven GRÜNEWALD GUSTON HALS HARING HARNETT HARTLEY HASSAM HAUSMANN HEADE HENRI HEPWORTH HESSE HIROSHIGE HIRST HOCKNEY HODGKIN HOGARTH HOKUSAI HOLBEIN HOMER HOPPER Hudson River School HUNDERTWASSER HUNT IMMENDORFF Impressionism INGRES INNESS JOHNS JORDAENS KAHLO KANDINSKY KENSETT KIEFER KIENHOLZ KIRCHNER KITAJ KLEE KLIMT KLINE KOKOSCHKA LAWRENCE LE NAIN LEGER LEONARDO LEVINE LEYSTER LICHTENSTEIN LIOTARD LIPPI LISSITZKY LOTTO LÜPERTZ MACKE MAGRITTE MALEVICH MAN RAY MANET MANTEGNA MARC MARSH MARTINI MASACCIO MATISSE MEMLING MICHELANGELO MILLAIS MILLET MIRO MITCHELL MODIGLIANI MONDRIAN MONET MOORE MORAN MORANDI MOREAU MORISOT MUCHA MUNCH MURILLO MURRAY Neo-Classical NEEL NOLDE O'KEEFFE PARMIGIANINO PEARLSTEIN PETO Photographers PICASSO PIERO della FRANCESCA PIERO di COSIMO PIRANESI PISSARRO POLKE POLLOCK Pop Art PORTER POSADA Post-Impressionism POUSSIN Pre-Raphaelites PRENDERGAST PUVIS RAPHAEL RAUSCHENBERG REDON REMBRANDT REMINGTON Renaissance Art RENOIR RICHTER RIVERA ROCKWELL Rococo RODIN Roman Art Romanticism ROSSETTI ROTHKO ROUAULT H. ROUSSEAU T. ROUSSEAU ROUSSEL RUBENS RUISDAEL RYDER SARGENT SCHIELE SCHWITTERS Sculptors SEURAT SHEELER SIGNAC SIGNORELLI SISLEY SLOAN SOHLBERG SOROLLA Spanish Art SPILLIAERT DE STAEL Surrealism SWEERTS Symbolism TAMAYO TANNER TANSEY THIEBAUD TIEPOLO TINTORETTO TISSOT TITIAN TOULOUSE-LAUTREC TREVIÑO TURNER TWOMBLY UCCELLO VAN DYCK VAN EYCK VAN GOGH VELÁZQUEZ VERMEER VERONESE WARHOL WATTEAU WEST WEYDEN WHISTLER Women Artists WYETH ZURBARAN Velazquez

POUSSIN

(Nicolas Poussin, 1594-1665)

Nicolas Poussin was the greatest French artist of the seventeenth century, the founder of his country's classical school. With him, French painting shook off its provinciality and became a European affair, mirroring the power of its grand siecle, the age of Louis XIV. After Poussin, Rome could no longer condescend to Paris. But without Rome there would have been no Poussin: Rome formed and trained him, gave him his conception of professional life, his myths, his essential subjects, his sensuality and measure in short, his pictorial ethos.

He first went there in 1624, and stayed sixteen years. What did he see? What did he do? No American museum until now has tried to tell us: there has never been a Poussin retrospective in this country. But now [article written in 1988] the gap has been filled by a show at the Kimbell Art Museum in Fort Worth, "Poussin: The Early Years in Rome: The Origins of French Classicism." It comes with a detailed, argumentative and altogether excellent catalogue by art historian Konrad Oberhuber, who has carried Poussin studies well beyond the point at which they were left by the death of Anthony Blunt. And it is bound to correct whatever stereotypes one may have about Poussin the cold, the correct, the theoretician of mode and decorum.

To the seventeenth century the classical world was the locus of Ideal Beauty, but how did a Frenchman enter it? A writer could read Virgil without leaving Paris, but a painter had to go to Rome. There, ancient sculpture and architecture abounded; from them, antiquity could be reimagined; and it was the strength of the reimagining, not just its archaeological correctness, that counted. Poussin's main regular job during his Roman years was drawing records of ancient sculpture for a rich antiquarian named Cassiano del Pozzo. This gave Poussin excellent access to collections, and the time to develop the repertoire of figures that would fill his work in years to come. Rome was not just a boneyard of suggestive antiques: it was full of living art whose plasticity, color and narrative richness surpassed anything you could see in France - Caravaggio, Pietro da Cortona, the Carracci. But del Pozzo's main gift to Poussin was the intellectual background that enabled a melancholy, impetuous young Frenchman to become the chief peintre pbilosophe of his age.

"This young man has the inner fire of a devil," wrote one of Poussin's Roman acquaintances. And in fact Poussin's vitality, reconceiving the antique, is the clue to his art. His renderings of classical myths struck back to the root. Poussin was more of a sensualist than people think. You want to roll on his grass, sprawl under the shot silk blue and honey colored sky that unfurls over his Roman campagna. His goddesses and nymphs grow up out of the earth; they have not dropped from Olympus. They carry their archaism like a bloom. There is more sexual tension between the white goddess and the kneeling shepherd in Diana and Endymion, 1628, than in a hundred Renoirs. This, for him, is part of classicism. "The beautiful girls you will have seen at Nimes," he wrote to a friend in 1642, "will not, I am certain, delight your spirits less than the sight of the beautiful columns of the Malson Carre, since the latter are only ancient copies of the former."

But antiquity mattered to him for other reasons. It was Law. Deprived of its magisterial influence, a painter could go off the rails and become a fribbling hack, "a strappazzone," he wrote in Paris, "like all the others who are here." For him, the one thing that truly sustained creation was the inseminating authority of the past.

Poussin was to art what his contemporary Pierre Corneille became to drama. As La Bruyere said of Corneille, he "paints men as they ought to be." The world of Corneille's great tragedies of the 1640s, Rodogune or Horace, is prefigured in Poussin: not just the reflection of classical drama, but its heightening into a schematic grandeur where will, pride and logic are displayed as they rarely are in real life, and exemplary self sacrifice resolves the conflict between duty and passion.

The manifesto of this in Poussin's early work is The Death of Germanicus, 1626-28.

Germanicus Julius Caesar, conqueror of Germany, was sent to command Rome's eastern provinces and died in Antioch in A.D. 18, poisoned - so it was believed - by a jealous Roman governor. He soon became an archetype of the Betrayed Hero.

Poussin turns this incident into a tremendous oration on duty and continuity, overlaid with Christian allusions to the entombment of Jesus, whose life that of Germanicus overlapped. The hero lies dying beneath the frame of a blue curtain, which suggests both a temple pediment and a military tent. On the right are his wife, women servants and little sons; on the left, his soldiers and officers. The common soldier on the far left weeps inarticulately, his grandly modeled back turned toward us. Next to him, a centurion in a billowing red cloak starts forward: grief galvanized to action in the present. Then a gold armored pillar of a general in a blue cloak (adapted from an antique bas relief) projects grief forward into the future by swearing an oath of revenge; Poussin hides the man's face to suggest that this is not a personal matter but one of History itself. The target of this socially ascending wave of resolution is not only Germanicus himself - whose exhausted head on the pillow vividly predicts the style ofGericault nearly two hundred years later - but his little son, whose blue cloak matches the general's; the women suffer, but the boy learns, remembers and will act.

The more Germanicus unfolds, the more one realizes why Bernini, on his visit to Louis XIV in Paris, declared Poussin the only French artist who really mattered: il grande favoleggiatore, "the great storyteller." For the means of the painting match its narrative. Its pictorial structure, with the blues, reds and golds pealing like single strokes of a gong in the warm internal light, is irreducibly taut. Poussin's ancient Romans are not the insipid denizens of lesser classical art but men and women of vivid presence; their gestures have dramatic coherence and intensity. If one had to pick one image to sum up the best qualities of Baroque painting all'antica, this would be it.

Later in life Poussin would complain of the pressure of commissions, "Monsieur, these are not things that can be done at the crack of a whip," he wrote to his friend and patron Chantelou in 1645, "like your Parisian painters who make a sport of turning out a picture in twenty-four hours." But in his Roman youth, he could and did turn them out, and it would be idle to pretend that all early Poussin is on the same level. Some paintings are much less "finished" than others; a few are hackwork (such as a Hannibal Crossing the Alps, done for del Pozzo, who had a thing about elephants); and one painting from San Francisco's de Young Museum, The Adoration of the Golden Calf, does not survive comparison; it is clearly not by Poussin at all, although it shows how fanatically others imitated him. But the unevenness is part of Poussin's development: an artist in the real world, discovering the true tone of his ideas. Young Poussin did not paint plaster gods, and he was not one himself.

- From Robert Hughes, "Nothing If Not Critical"

 POUSSIN_SHEPHERDS_OF_ARCADIA

Poussin, Nicolas The Shepherds of Arcadia Oil on canvas 33 1/2 x 47 1/2 in. (85 x 121 cm) Musee du Louvre, Paris

 POUSSIN_SABINE

Poussin, Nicolas The Rape of the Sabine Women Oil on canvas 60 7/8 x 82 5/8 in. (154.6 x 209.9 cm) Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

 POUSSIN_RINALDO_ARMIDA

Poussin, Nicolas Rinaldo and Armida 1629 Oil on canvas Dulwich Picture Gallery, London

 POUSSIN_POUSSIN_MUSIC_OF_TIME

Poussin, Nicolas The dance to the music of time c. 1640 Oil on canvas 84.8 x 107.6 cm Wallace Collection, London

 POUSSIN_PHOCION

Poussin, Nicolas The Ashes of Phocion Collected by his Widow 1648 Oil on canvas Merseyside County Art Galleries, Liverpool

 POUSSIN_ORPHEUS_AND_EURYDICE

Poussin, Nicolas Landscape with Orpheus and Eurydice 1650-1 Oil on canvas 120 x 200 cm Musee du Louvre, Paris

 POUSSIN_GOLDEN_CALF_MOTHER

Poussin, Nicolas The Adoration of the Golden Calf DETAIL OF mother with child 1633-36 Oil on canvas National Gallery, London

 POUSSIN_GOLDEN_CALF_DANCER

Poussin, Nicolas The Adoration of the Golden Calf DETAIL OF the dancers 1633-36 Oil on canvas National Gallery, London

 POUSSIN_GOLDEN_CALF

Poussin, Nicolas The Adoration of the Golden Calf 1633-36 Oil on canvas National Gallery, London

 POUSSIN_CEPHALUS_AURORA

Poussin, Nicolas Cephalus and Aurora 1631-33 Oil on canvas National Gallery, London

 POUSSIN_ASHDOD

Poussin, Nicolas The Plague of Ashdod 1630 Oil on canvas 148 x 198 cm Musee du Louvre, Paris

poussin_Landscape_with_St

Poussin

Poussin

Nicolas Poussin. Landscape with St. Jerome. Oil on canvas. Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain.

poussin_The_Sleeping_Venus_and_Cupid

Poussin

Poussin

Nicolas Poussin. The Sleeping Venus and Cupid. c. 1630. Oil on canvas. Alte Meister Gallerie, Dresden, Germany.

poussin_The_Extreme_Unction

Poussin

Poussin

Nicolas Poussin. The Extreme Unction. 1640s. Oil on canvas. The Trustees of Rutland Trust, Belvoir Castle, Grantham, UK.

poussin_The_Confirmation

Poussin

Poussin

Nicolas Poussin. The Confirmation. 1640s. Oil on canvas. The Trustees of Rutland Trust, Belvoir Castle, Grantham, UK.

poussin_The_Last_Supper

Poussin

Poussin

Nicolas Poussin. The Last Supper. 1640s. Oil on canvas. The Trustees of Rutland Trust, Belvoir Castle, Grantham, UK.

poussin_Landscape_with_St

Poussin

Poussin

Nicolas Poussin. Landscape with St. Matthew. 1640. Oil on canvas. Gemaldegalerie, Berlin, Germany.

poussin_The_Holy_Family

Poussin

Poussin

Nicolas Poussin. The Holy Family. 1641. Oil on canvas. The Detroit Institute of Arts, Detroit, USA.

poussin_The_Eucharist

Poussin

Poussin

Nicolas Poussin. The Eucharist. 1647. Oil on canvas. National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh, UK.

poussin_The_Testament_of_Eudamidas

Poussin

Poussin

Nicolas Poussin. The Testament of Eudamidas. 1643-1644. Oil on canvas. Staten Kunstmuseum, Copenhagen, Denmark.

poussin_Baby_Moses_Trampling_on_the_Pharaoh's_Crown

Poussin

Poussin

Nicolas Poussin. Baby Moses Trampling on the Pharaoh's Crown. 1645. Oil on canvas. Duke of Bedford collection, Woburn Abbey.

poussin_Self-Portrait

Poussin

Poussin

Nicolas Poussin. Self-Portrait. 1649. Oil on canvas. Gemaldegalerie, Berlin, Germany.

poussin_Self-Portrait

Poussin

Poussin

Nicolas Poussin. Self-Portrait. 1650. Oil on canvas. Louvre, Paris, France.

poussin_Landscape_with_a_Castle

Poussin

Poussin

Nicolas Poussin. Landscape with a Castle. 1651. Oil on canvas. Sudeley Castle, Winchcombe, UK.

poussin_Noli_me_tangere

Poussin

Poussin

Nicolas Poussin. Noli me tangere. 1653. Oil on canvas. Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain.

poussin_The_Annunciation

Poussin

Poussin

Nicolas Poussin. The Annunciation. 1657. Oil on canvas. Bayerische Staatsgemaldesammlungen, Munich, Germany.

poussin_The_Nativity

Poussin

Poussin

Nicolas Poussin. The Nativity. 1650s. Oil on canvas. Bayerische Staatsgemaldesammlungen, Munich, Germany.