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MIRO

(Joan Miro, 1893-1983)

Text from "Encounters and Reflections", by Arthur Danto

"ON JANUARY 24, 1937 the Catalan artist Joan Miró, prevented by civil war from returning to his homeland, set up in the gallery of his Paris dealer, Pierre Loeb, a still life on which he worked every day for a month. The painting was finished in his studio on May 29 of that difficult year. It consists of an apple, into which a lethal, six-tined fork has been stuck; a gin bottle shrouded in torn newspaper, secured with a thong; a heel of bread; and a left shoe, its lace untied. The apple is brown, so perhaps rotten; the bread is dried; the shoe, we learn from the title Still Life with Old Shoe, is worn. Each object relates to a heavy shadow, represented by black free-forms of the sort we associate with Miró's vocabulary of shapes-forms that came to be emblems of modern art in the plaques ofHans Arp, in the flat metal pieces on Calder mobiles and in modernesque jewelry and coffee tables, and which have their natural counterparts in deeply lobed leaves or kidneys or human feet. It is possible to read the shadow cast by the gin bottle as a weeping silhouette, but it is also possible to read too much into the painting, wanting it to be deep. The shoe is painted in yellows and greens, reds and bright blues-footwear for a one-legged harlequin. James Thrall Soby compared the work-polemical, memorial, ostensibly lamentational-with Picasso's Guernica, to which it was allegedly intended as an artistic response.

"Form for me is never something abstract," Miró once said. "It is always a token of something. . . . For me, form is never an end in itself." So here is a work of political reference and artistic allusion, a work supposed to draw its meaning from the events that elicited it and from other art elicited by those events. But how could one tell, descending the coiled ramp of the Guggenheim Museum, that this is a piece of political art, an exile's meditation on war and loss, a dark poem in a dark time, a counterthrust in the style wars of Paris? It looks like what its title says it is: a still life with a shoe. The shoe is luminous, parti-colored, comical. But the image is otherwise realistic and recognizable, like a good cartoon. That fact sets it off from the works that immediately surround it: Miró had not painted objects realistically and recognizably since 1923, even if his forms were always tokens of real things. But that fact, if it is even relevant, would not be visible in the painting alone, without the context of its peers.

"I saw this wonderful exhibition on a sparkling May morning. The Guggenheim must have had its skylight washed of the accumulated Manhattan soot for the occasion, and the brilliant sky was mirrored in the blue pool (itself almost a Miró shape) at the base of the ramp, making the museum's core a well of light. Outside in the park, under the new green, there were runners in bright costumes, vendors, children, dogs. The paintings themselves were gay and playful, and filled with creatures so inventive and good-humored that one had the sense of passing through a display of zoological or botanical or entomological extravagances-whiskered, flittering innocent beings, utterly unsuited to the struggle for existence, goggle-eyed, bearing the blank staring expressions of brilliant fish in tropical waters, or insects in flower-mad gardens, or radiant birds flying among ornamental planets. Where there were humans, they seemed mainly to be carriers of jolly genitalia. Still Life with Old Shoe ought to have stood darkly against the ambient gaiety like the Ancient Mariner at the wedding feast. Instead, it looked like part of the carnival, as if the wedding guests had refused to accept the spell of the old loon's tale, had decked the mariner out with silk and ribbons and made him part of the dance. The external knowledge of the circumstances in which the painting was made, however, fought against this spontaneous assimilation, and demanded that one reflect on the fact that one was traversing a total life in art (Miró died in 1983, at the age of ninety). Ought the contradiction between what we know about this painting and the overall sense of hedonistic celebration call the latter into question? After all, that is exactly the contradiction between the meaning of the painting and its surface. Or is this particular painting a failure, Miró not being up to expressing that level of intention?

"It would, I think, be remarkable if each of the paintings in the show held a tension at all like the one I find in Still Life with Old Shoe, for then their meanings would be so external to their formal achievement that we would need a dictionary to read the show. A shoe, a bottle, a piece of fruit with a fork in it or a knife, a crust of bread-these compose the pedagogical still life set up in the art academies of that era. For all one knows, Miró's painting is an exercise in nostalgia for the Barcelona art schools of his youth. There is a tradition of mystical still life painting in Spain, where achingly familiar objects are transfigured by an unearthly light against an impenetrable blackness. In 1922 Miró had painted a number of severe still lifes of carbide lamps and grills, kitchen utensils and, in one case, a blade of wheat, displayed like the emblems of martyrdom in uncanny spaces and immersed in a light so absolute that the shadows have been reduced to thin drawn lines. But these, like almost everything he did before 1923, seem to be about art. There is an early still life in the Cubist manner, in which a live rabbit and rooster are juxtaposed with a demijohn and a smoked fish on a sheet of newspaper together with an onion, a pepper and some greens, which may refer to the bodegón tradition of Spanish still life painting, or for that matter may refer to Cubism rather than stand solidly in that style of representation. Standing outside a style to which he refers, a stranger and a commentator, detached, a bit derisive, putting bits and pieces of art to his own ends, associated with the Surrealists but never finally one of them, a Parisian but an outsider, Miró seems insufficiently in the world to be making a statement about it rather than a statement about statements or about styles. So Still Life with Old Shoe comes as an interruption. Small wonder we would never have known it was a response to the Civil War in Spain if no one told us. Small wonder it fails to communicate the feeling it was intended to convey. Small wonder the surrounding works refuse to allow it to speak of suffering. It is too isolated, like a single serious and direct thing-"By the way, I am dying"-uttered in the monologue of a great comedian.

"Consider in this light Miró's climactic masterpiece, The Farm, executed over nine months in the three places that defined his life from 1921 to 1922: the parental farm at Montroig, Barcelona and Paris. In those years, indeed as a regular rhythm until the Civil War put a stop to it, Miró moved between Catalonia and Paris, between the tradition in which he sought his identity and the brittle world of Parisian intellect, where he lived among poets and thinkers rather than the cultural patriots of his native province. The two forms of life, one feels, pulled him in two directions, and this tension is embodied in The Farm. The painting has the unsettling quality of something observed and at the same time dreamed of or remembered. Hemingway, who owned it, described it perfectly: "It has in it all that you feel about Spain when you are there and all that you feel when you are away and cannot go there." Hemingway went on to say, "No one else has been able to paint these two very opposing things." What is remarkable about the painting is the oppositions it internalizes, just as Miró himself internalized as a matter of personality the circumstances of his shuttled existence. Picasso belonged wherever he was. Miró belonged only where he wasn't: his not being in Paris defined his Spanish reality, and vice versa.

"The Farm is energized by two incompatible artistic realities, corresponding to the polarities of Miró's life. It has the obsessive documentation of visual reality that we find in primitive painting: each leaf on the dominating eucalyptus tree is separately painted, each rock in the stony field to the right is given an autonomous space, each blade of grass is given its own identity. The lichen on the cracked façade of the farm building on the left defeats this impulse: you cannot register lichen spore by spore, at least not in the middle distance of a landscape where spores would be negligible specks in proportion to the façade they adhere to-though the particularity of treatment gives an uncanny microscopy to that surface. The barking dog, the rabbit, the snail, the cock, the donkey, the dove, the pail, the watering can, the wagon, the plow, the dozens of farm implements, the farmer's wife, the baby by the wash trough, are each suspended in the shadowless clarity of a metaphysical illumination-it is the kind of light one gets through an optical instrument. The space recedes to distant mountains, but the trees and bushes at the horizon are treated with the same measured detail as the foreground objects, as if perception were indifferent to distance. All this pulls the farthest objects forward to the surface plane, and indeed, when we look carefully, we notice that the plane on which all these objects are arrayed, and which seems to recede, is itself tipped up. There is, for instance, a tiled area, supposed to be lying flat on the ground, which in fact is parallel to the surface. Behind it, again, is a path that seems at once to go back and to rise up, like an abstract flame. It is as though the artist had intermixed, in a single work, the illusory space of traditional landscape with the shallow space of Cubism, so that everything is on the surface and at the same time bears no relation to the surface, which, after all, is not part of the landscape. There is, for example, a trestle table in the middle distance in the form of a letter A. If it is a letter, it belongs on the surface, as writing. An A in the landscape is dissonant, as if the work were a rebus puzzle. But a table, of course, belongs to the world of a farm. Everything is inside and outside at once. And superimposed on the primitive meticulousness of a picturesque farm are the devices of the most sophisticated painting of the century so far. Part of what brings everything to the surface are the Cubist rhythms, the sense of pattern, of fragmentation, of reduction and abstraction. "No one could look at it," Hemingway wrote, "and not know it had been painted by a great painter." He is right, but no one who knows great painting can look at it without sensing the divided consciousness and the aesthetic indeterminacy of an artist who sank into his art the oppositions of his vision: Catalan and Parisian, traditionalist and Cubist, naif and cosmopolite.

"Of this great painting, Miró later said, "It was the summary of one period of my work, but also the point of departure for what was to follow." And though he could not then have known what precisely was to follow, the fact that it is the largest painting he had undertaken up to that time is an indication that he had chosen to make an important statement through it. Miró was perhaps not as poor at that stage of his life as artistic mythology maintains, but canvas and paint, then as now, were costly items, especially if one had no idea if one's work was going to sell. The size of the canvas plays a part in an affecting vignette left us by Hemingway, who describes how he bore it home as a birthday present for his wife, Hadley, after paying off the last installment of the 5,000 francs it cost: "In the open taxi the wind caught the big canvas as though it were a sail, and we made the taxi driver crawl along."

"It is instructive to think of The Farm together with Still Life with Old Shoe. The latter is a failure, not so much as a painting but as a painting about war, for its subject never penetrates the work save by the external imposition of a symbolic interpretation. "In some sense," Jacques Dupin claims in his catalogue essay, "this unique and fantastic painting stands as Miró's Guernica." Dupin curated the show, and he is an enthusiast. But as Miró's Guemica, the painting fails. Miró was certainly sickened by the war in Spain, but he was not finally a political person: Art was the substance of his life and hence of his art, which is most genuine and best when, as in The Farm, it is about its own processes. The first works we encounter in the show are two drawings from 1917, before Miró had visited Paris for the first time. They are dense with Parisian references and mannerisms even so: the male and female nudes are geometrized, all arcs and angles, evidence that the news of Cubism had arrived in Spain and was deflecting advanced artists from whatever path their training would have set them on if the twentieth century had not happened instead. Miró was still dealing with Cubism in The Farm, painted five years later.

"Dealing with Cubism, for he felt at once its seductiveness and its dangers. It could not be ignored, but at the same time it almost guaranteed artistic mediocrity, for Paris in the early 1920s was full of second-generation Cubists. Picasso confided to his dealer, Daniel Henry Kahnweiler, that he had become rich by selling his license to paint guitars, alluding to the endless cubed and stretched guitars that formed the motif of the Cubist legions. The Farm was a liberation, even if Cubism remained an internal force in its dynamics. "I will smash their guitar," Miró said when he realized he had found another path, visible inThe Farm only in the light radiating from his later work, which began, abruptly, in 1923. The Tilled Field of that year shows us the Miró we know and love. The space has moved so far forward that the ground is nearly vertical. A tree shows an eye amid its leaves, and has grown a hallucinatory ear from its trunk. The farm animals are there, still recognizable, but the hen has taken the form of a grotesquely unbalanced dumbbell, with a globular body and a tiny head. The mare has developed immovably thick legs, as wavy as sine curves, and her tall swishes forward like a calligraphic question mark. The whole painting is like an exultation at having broken through to the style-pictographic, idiomatic, autographic-that was to be his from now on. If he were a poet, we would say he had found his voice.

The art historian Michael Baxandall has introduced an interesting concept in discussing Picasso's portrait of Kahnweiler. There is a system of interchange between advanced artists and their patrons and critics which is analogous to a market, but which involves ideas and refinements instead of money. He gives this system the name troc, which means "barter" in French. Picasso was en troc with poets like Apollinaire and intellectuals like Kahnweiler, who demanded certain artistic performances from which they and the artist benefited. The great American painters of the 1950s were en troc with Harold Rosenberg and Clement Greenberg. Troc requires mutual interchange rather than unilateral influence, so that present-day artists are not en troc with the intellectuals they admire, such as Derrida, who knows little about painting, and Baudrillard, who cares little for it. Miró was intensely en trocwith the poets and the theorists of Surrealism, with Picabia and Tzara, Breton and Masson, Artaud, Próvert, Desnos and Michel Leiris. My own sense is that his breakthrough owes a lot to this intimacy. He showed with the Surrealists, and took over a great deal of their ideology and a degree of their silliness, but as long as the conversations rang in his head, as long as he was painting for an audience that was instantly responsive and critical, he maintained a minor greatness.

"Miró remained in Paris from 1936 to 1941, the year Normandy was bombed, when he settled in Palma de Mallorca, his mother's birthplace. The next year he returned to Barcelona, where he found he could live after all. His work thinned after the war, though his productivity remained, and his influence became immense, especially in New York, where his ideas were absorbed and transcended by Gorky and Pollock and Motherwell. In a way, his truly creative life ended when the troc ended. In this regard he bears a resemblance to Chagall, who was a great artist when he was in tension with the ideologues of the School of Paris, but who simply manufactured Chagalls when the tensions eased and commerce took over. One senses that the greatness of Picasso andMatisse in part consists in their being en troc with themselves as their own intellectuals. Appropriately, there is proportionately little painting in the Guggenheim show after 1950. In those years Miró's energies mainly went into ceramics and into a kind of terra cotta sculpture. This was an artistic return, of sorts, to Catalonia, and it was a nice way to round off Miró's particular life. The show has the cadences of a marvelous biography. Go on a really sunny day."

 

 Miro_STONBIRD

Miro, Joan Personage Throwing a Stone at a Bird 1926 Oil on canvas 29 x 36 1/4 in. (73.7 x 92.1 cm.)

 Miro_SPDANCER

Miro, Joan Portrait of a Spanish Dancer (Retrat d'una ballarina espanyola) 1921 Oil on canvas 65 x 56 cm Musee Picasso, Paris

 Miro_SNAIL_SEXES

Miro, Joan Stars in Snails' Sexes 1925 Oil on canvas 129.5 x 97 cm Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen, Düsseldorf

 Miro_SELFPORT

Miro, Joan Self-Portrait (Autoretrat) 1919 Oil on canvas 73 x 60 cm Musee Picasso, Paris

 Miro_SEAT_WMN

Miro, Joan Seated Woman I (Dona asseguda I) 1938 Oil on canvas 163.4 x 131 cm The Museum of Modern Art, New York

 Miro_ROPE

Miro, Joan Rope and Personages I (Corda i personatges I) 1935 Oil and rope on cardboard, mounted on wood 106 x 75 cm The Museum of Modern Art, New York

 Miro_RHYTHMIC

Miro, Joan Rhythmic Personages (Personatges ritmics) 1934 Oil on canvas 193 x 171 cm Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen, Düsseldorf

 Miro_PORT_IV

Miro, Joan Portrait IV (Retrat IV) 1938 Oil on canvas 130 x 97 cm Private collection

 Miro_PEASANT

Miro, Joan Head of a Catalan Peasant (Cap de pages catala) 1924 Oil on canvas 57.5 x 45 cm National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.

 Miro_OLD_SHOE

Miro, Joan Still Life with Old Shoe (Natura morta del sabatot) 1937 Oil on canvas 81.3 x 116.8 cm The Museum of Modern Art, New York

 Miro_NUDE_WITH_A_MIRROR

Miro, Joan Nude with a Mirror 1919 Oil on canvas 113 x 102 cm Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen, Dusseldorf

 Miro_NOCTURNE

Miro, Joan Nocturne 1940 Tempera, gouache, egg, oil, and pastel on paper 38 x 46 cm Private collection

 Miro_HUNTER

Miro, Joan Catalan Landscape (The Hunter) (Paisatge catala [El cacador]) 1923-24 Oil on canvas 65 x 100 cm The Museum of Modern Art, New York

 Miro_HORSE

Miro, Joan Horse, Pipe, and Red Flower (Cavall, pipa i flor vermella) 1920 Oil on canvas 82.5 x 75 cm Philadelphia Museum of Art

 Miro_FIELD

Miro, Joan The Tilled Field (Terra llaurada) 1923-24 Oil on canvas 66 x 92.7 cm Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York

 Miro_FARM

MIRO, Joan The Farm (La masia) 1921-22 Oil on canvas 132 x 147 cm National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.

 Miro_DUTCHINT

Miro, Joan Dutch Interior I (Interior holandes I) 1928 Oil on canvas 92 x 73 cm The Museum of Modern Art, New York

 Miro_DOG_BARK

Miro, Joan Dog Barking at the Moon (Gos bordant a la lluna) 1926 Oil on canvas 73 x 92 cm Philadelphia Museum of Art

 Miro_DAWNGOLD

Miro, Joan Dawn Perfumed by a Shower of Gold 1954 Watercolor and plaster on composition board 42 1/2 x 21 5/8 in. (108 x 54.9 cm.) San Francisco Museum of Modern Art

 Miro_CARNIVAL

Miro, Joan Carnival of Harlequin (El carnaval de l'Arlequi) 1924-25 Oil on canvas 66 x 93 cm Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, N.Y.

 Miro_CARBIDE

Miro, Joan The Carbide Lamp 1922-23 Oil on canvas 38 x 46 cm The Museum of Modern Art, New York

miro_Bottle_of_Vine

Miro

Miro

Joan Miró. Bottle of Vine. 1924. Oil on canvas. 73.3 x 65.5 cm. Private collection.

miro_Mètamorphose

Miro

Miro

Joan Miró. Mètamorphose. 1936. Crayon et aquarelle, collage. 64 x 47.8 cm. Private collection.

miro_Drawing-Collage_with_a_Hat

Miro

Miro

Joan Miró. Drawing-Collage with a Hat. 1933. Pencil and collage on paper. 106.7 x 69.9 cm. Private collection.

miro_Head_of_a_Man

Miro

Miro

Joan Miró. Head of a Man. 1935. Oil and vernis on cardboard glued to wood panel. 104.5 x 74.2 cm. Musée National d'Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, France.

miro_Character

Miro

Miro

Joan Miró. Character. 1934. Pastel on velour paper. 106.3 x 70.5 cm. Musée National d'Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, France.

miro_Maternity

Miro

Miro

Joan Miró. Maternity. Oil on canvas. 92 x 73 cm. 1924. Private collection.

miro_The_Birth_of_the_World

Miro

Miro

Joan Miró. The Birth of the World. Oil on canvas. 1925. 251 x 200 cm. The Museum of Modern Arts, New York, NY, USA.

miro_Stars_in_Snails'_Sexes

Miro

Miro

Joan Miró. Stars in Snails' Sexes. Oil on canvas. 130 x 97 cm. 1925. Private collection.

miro_Photo:_This_is_the_Color_of_My_Dreams

Miro

Miro

Joan Miró. Photo: This is the Color of My Dreams. Oil on canvas. 96 x 130 cm. 1925. Private collection.

miro_Painting

Miro

Miro

Joan Miró. Painting. Oil on canvas. 97 x 130 cm. 1927. Tate Gallery, London, UK.

miro_Dancer

Miro

Miro

Joan Miró. Dancer. 1925. Oil on canvas. 115.5 x 88.5 cm. Galerie Rosengart, Lucerne, Switzerland

miro_Harlequin's_Carnival

Miro

Miro

Joan Miró. Harlequin's Carnival. 1924-25. Oil on canvas. 66 x 93 cm. Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, NY, USA.

miro_Self-Portrait

Miro

Miro

Joan Miró. Self-Portrait. 1917. Oil on canvas. 61 x 50. Private collection.

miro_The_Farmer

Miro

Miro

Joan Miró. The Farmer. c. 1912-14. Oil on canvas. 65 x 50 cm. Private collection.

miro_Still_Life_with_Rose

Miro

Miro

Joan Miró. Still Life with Rose. 1916. Oil on cardboard. 77 x 74 cm. Private collection.

_

Miroa

Miroa

N/A

miro_Portrait_of_V

Miro

Miro

Joan Miró. Portrait of V. Nubiola. 1917. Oil on canvas. 104 x 113 cm. Museum Folkwang, Essen, Germany.

miro_Portrait_of_Hiberto_Casany

Miro

Miro

Joan Miró. Portrait of Hiberto Casany. (The Chauffeur). 1918. Oil on canvas. 70 x 62 cm. Private collection.

miro_Prades,_the_Village

Miro

Miro

Joan Miró. Prades, the Village. 1917. Oil on canvas. 65 x 72.5 cm. The Solomon R. Guggebheim Museum, New York, NY, USA.

miro_Ciurana,_the_Path

Miro

Miro

Joan Miró. Ciurana, the Path. 1917. Oil on canvas. 60 x 73 cm. Private collection.

miro_North-South

Miro

Miro

Joan Miró. North-South. 1917. oil on canvas. 62 x 70 cm. Private collection.

miro_The_Vegetable_Garden_with_Donkey

Miro

Miro

Joan Miró. The Vegetable Garden with Donkey. 1918. Oil on canvas. 64 x 70 cm. Moderna Museet, Stockholm, Sweden.

miro_Hermitage

Miro

Miro

Joan Miró. Hermitage. 1924. Oil, pencil on canvas. 114.3 x 147 cm. The Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

miro_The_Waggon_Tracks

Miro

Miro

Joan Miró. The Waggon Tracks. 1918. Oil on canvas. 75 x 75 cm. Private collection.

miro_Self-Portrait

Miro

Miro

Joan Miró. Self-Portrait. 1919. Oil on canvas. 75 x 60 cm. Musée Picasso, Paris, France.

miro_The_Table_(Still_Life_with_Rabbit)

Miro

Miro

Joan Miró. The Table (Still Life with Rabbit). 1920. Oil on canvas. 130 x 110 cm. Private collection.

miro_Standing_Nude

Miro

Miro

Joan Miró. Standing Nude. 1921. Oil on canvas. 130 x 96 cm. Perls Galleries. New York, NY, USA.

miro_Nude_with_Mirror

Miro

Miro

Joan Miró. Nude with Mirror. 1919. Oil on canvas. 112 x 102 cm. Private collection.

miro_The_Farm

Miro

Miro

Joan Miró. The Farm. 1921/22. Oil on canvas. 132 x 147 cm. The National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, USA.

miro_The_Carbide_Lamp

Miro

Miro

Joan Miró. The Carbide Lamp. 1922/23. Oil on canvas. 38 x 45.7 cm. The Museum of Modern Arts, New York, NY, USA.

miro_The_Farmer's_Wife

Miro

Miro

Joan Miró. The Farmer's Wife. 1922/23. Oil on canvas. 81 x 65 cm. Private collection.

miro_The_Ear_of_Corn

Miro

Miro

Joan Miró. The Ear of Corn. 1922/23. Oil on canvas. 37.8 x 46 cm. The Museum of Modern Arts, New York, NY, USA.

miro_Landscape

Miro

Miro

Joan Miró. Landscape. 1924/25. Oil on canvas. 47 x 45 cm. Museum Folkwang, Essen, Germany.

miro_Bouquet_of_Flowers

Miro

Miro

Joan Miró. Bouquet of Flowers. Smile of My Blond. (Sourire de ma blonde). 1924. Tempera on canvas. 88 x 115 cm. Private collection.

miro_The_Tilled_Field

Miro

Miro

Joan Miró. The Tilled Field. 1923/24. Oil on canvas. 66 x 92.7 cm. The Solomon R. Guggebheim Museum, New York, NY, USA.

miro_Catalan_Landscape_(The_Hunter)

Miro

Miro

Joan Miró. Catalan Landscape (The Hunter). 1923/24. Oil on canvas. 64.8 x 100.3 cm. The Museum of Modern Arts, New York, NY, USA.

miro_Person_Throwing_a_Stone_at_a_Bird

Miro

Miro

Joan Miró. Person Throwing a Stone at a Bird. 1926. Oil on canvas. 73.7 x 92 cm. The Museum of Modern Arts, New York, NY, USA.

miro_Bathing_Woman

Miro

Miro

Joan Miró. Bathing Woman. 1925. Oil on cnvas. 73 x 92 cm. Musée National d'Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, France.

miro_Dog_Barking_at_the_Moon

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Joan Miró. Dog Barking at the Moon. 1926.Oil on canvas. 73 x 92 cm. The Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

miro_Landscape_(The_Hare)

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Joan Miró. Landscape (The Hare). 1927. Oil on canvas. 130 x 195 cm. The Solomon R. Guggebheim Museum, New York, NY, USA.

miro_Dutch_Interior_I

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Joan Miró. Dutch Interior I. 1928. Oil on canvas. 91.8 x 73 cm. The Museum of Modern Arts, New York, NY, USA.

miro_Dutch_Interior_II

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Joan Miró. Dutch Interior II. 1928. oil on canvas. 92 x 73 cm. The Solomon R. Guggebheim Museum, New York, NY, USA.

miro_Portrait_of_Mrs_Mills_in_1750_(after_Constable)

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Joan Miró. Portrait of Mrs Mills in 1750 (after Constable). 1929. Oil on canvas. 116.7 x 89.6 cm. The Museum of Modern Arts, New York, NY, USA.

miro_Ciphers_and_Constellations,_in_Love_with_a_Woman

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Joan Miró. Ciphers and Constellations, in Love with a Woman. 1941. Gouache and terpentine on paper. Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

miro_Composition

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Joan Miró. Composition. 1933. Oil on canvas. 130 x 162 cm. Kunstmuseum, Berne, Switzerland.

miro_Painting

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Joan Miró. Painting. 1933. Oil on canvas. 130 x 162 cm. Narodni Gallery, Prague, Czechia.

miro_Swallow/Love

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Joan Miró. Swallow/Love. 1934. Oil on canvas. 199.3 x 247.6 cm. The Museum of Modern Arts, New York, NY, USA.

miro_Rope_and_People_I

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Joan Miró. Rope and People I. 1935. oil and rope on cardboard, stuck to a wooden board. 104.7 x 74.6 cm. The Museum of Modern Arts, New York, NY, USA.

miro_Painting

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Joan Miró. Painting. 1950. Oil, rope and Case-arti on canvas. 99 x 76 cm. Stedelijk Van Abbe Museum, Eindhoven, the Netherlands.

miro_Still_Life_with_Old_Shoe

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Joan Miró. Still Life with Old Shoe. 1937. The Museum of Modern Arts, New York, NY, USA.

miro_Man_and_Woman_in_Front_of_a_Pile_of_Excrement

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Joan Miró. Man and Woman in Front of a Pile of Excrement. 1936. Oil on copper. 23.2 x 32 cm. Fundació Joan Miró, Barcelona, Spain.

miro_A_Dew_Drop_Falling_from_a_Bird's_Wing_Wakes_Rosalie,_who_Has_Been_Asleep_in_the_Shadow_of_a_Spider's_Web

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Joan Miró. A Dew Drop Falling from a Bird's Wing Wakes Rosalie, who Has Been Asleep in the Shadow of a Spider's Web. 1939. Oil on canvas. 65.4 x 91.7 cm. The University of Iowa Museum of Art, The Mark Pamney Memorial Fund, Iowa, IA, USA.

miro_The_Escape_Ladder

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Joan Miró. The Escape Ladder. 1939. Oil on canvas. 73 x 54 cm. Private collection.

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miro_Untitled

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Joan Miró. Untitled. 1925. Oil on canvas. 130 x 97 cm. Private collection.

miro_Painting

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Joan Miró. Painting. 1943. Oil and pastel on canvas. 40 x 30 cm. Fundació Joan Miró, Barcelona, Spain.

miro_The_Nightingale's_Song_at_Midnight_and_the_Morning_Rain

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Joan Miró. The Nightingale's Song at Midnight and the Morning Rain. 1940. Gouache and terpentine paint on paper. 38 x 46 cm. Perls Galleries. New York, NY, USA.

miro_Constellation:_Awakening_at_Dawn

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Joan Miró. Constellation: Awakening at Dawn. 1941.Gouache and terpentine paint on paper. 46 x 38 cm. Private collection.

miro_Constellation:_The_Morning_Star

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Joan Miró. Constellation: The Morning Star. 1940. Gouache and terpentine paint on paper. 38 x 46 cm. Private collection.

miro_The_Bull_Fight

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Joan Miró. The Bull Fight. 1945. Oil on canvas. 114 x 145 cm. Musée National d'Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, France.

miro_Women_and_Birds_at_Sunrise

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Joan Miró. Women and Birds at Sunrise. 1946. Oil on canvas. 54 x 65 cm. Fundació Joan Miró, Barcelona, Spain.

miro_Woman_in_Front_of_the_Sun

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Joan Miró. Woman in Front of the Sun. 1950. Oil on canvas. 65 x 50 cm. Private collection.

miro_Ladders_Cross_the_Blue_Sky_in_a_Wheel_of_Fire

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Joan Miró. Ladders Cross the Blue Sky in a Wheel of Fire. 1953. oil on canvas. 116 x 89 cm. Private collection.

miro_Blue_II

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Joan Miró. Blue II. 1961. Oil on canvas. 270 x 355 cm. Musée National d'Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, France.

miro_Blue_III

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Joan Miró. Blue III. 1961. Oil on canvas. 270 x 355 cm. Musée National d'Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, France.

miro_The_Lark's_Wing,_Encircled_with_Golden_Blue,_Rejoins_the_Heart_of_the_Poppy_Sleeping_on_a_Diamond-Studded_Meadow

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Joan Miró. The Lark's Wing, Encircled with Golden Blue, Rejoins the Heart of the Poppy Sleeping on a Diamond-Studded Meadow. 1967. Oil on canvas. 195 x 130 cm. Private collection.

miro_The_Gold_of_the_Azure

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Joan Miró. The Gold of the Azure. 1967. oil on canvas. 205 x 173.5 cm. Fundació Joan Miró, Barcelona, Spain.

miro_May_1968

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Joan Miró. May 1968. 1973. Acrylic on canvas. 200 x 200 cm. Fundació Joan Miró, Barcelona, Spain.

miro_Catalan_Peasant_with_a_Guitar

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Joan Miró. Catalan Peasant with a Guitar. c. 1924. Oil on canvas. 148 x 114 cm. Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection, Madrid, Spain.

miro_The_Circus_House

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Joan Miró. The Circus House. 1927. Oil and pencil on canvas. 195 x 280 cm. Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Smithonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA.

miro_Dutch_Intérior

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Joan Miró. Dutch Intérior. 1928. Oil on canvas. 129.9 x 96.8 cm. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, USA.