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INNESS

(George Inness, 1825-94)

"George Inness, born near Newburgh, New York, was the fifth of thirteen children. His father, a prosperous grocer, tried to make a grocer out of him, but the youth decided instead to become an artist. Around 1841, he received a month's instruction from John Jesse Barker, a painter living in Newark, New Jersey, where the Inness family had moved in 1829. From the age of sixteen, Inness served a two-year apprenticeship as an engraver with the New York mapmaking firm of Sherman and Smith. He took some instruction in painting from Régis Gignoux about 1843, around the time he was studying and being influenced by prints of the paintings of Claude Lorrain and the seventeenth-century Dutch landscape masters. He was also seeing the work of the leading Hudson River School painters - particularly that of Thomas Cole and Asher B. Durand - whose style is recalled in some of his early canvases.

"Inness exhibited for the first time at the National Academy of Design in 1844 and continued to exhibit there almost every year until the end of his life. Though he was elected an Associate of the Academy in 1853, he was not made an Academician until 1868. He was one of the important early members of the Society of American Artists, an exhibition organization founded in 1877 to challenge the conservative policies of the Academy.

"By the late 1840s, Inness was exhibiting regularly in New York and had attracted a patron, Ogden Haggerty. Inness married Elizabeth Hart in 1850, and the following February the couple departed for a fifteen-month stay in Italy made possible by Haggerry's financial support. On their way home, they stopped in Paris, where Inness visited an exhibition that included work by the Barbizon painter Théodore Rousseau; after a second trip abroad, in 1853-54, the work of Rousseau and other Barbizon painters exerted a strong influence on Inness's art.

"Inness and his family left New York in 1860, moving first to Medfield, Massachusetts, and later to an estate near Perth Amboy, New Jersey. In the early 1860s, fellow artist William Page introduced Inness to the theories of Emanuel Swedenborg, which made a deep and lasting impression on him; indeed, became a major force in his intellectual life. Throughout that decade, spent in rural surroundings, he sought to make his paintings convey the profound spiritual meaning he felt the landscape around him possessed.

"In 1870, the Innesses moved to Italy for four years, during which time the artist sent back paintings to be sold by the Boston dealers Williams and Everett, receiving in exchange regular monthly payments. Stopping again in Paris on the way back to the United States, in 1874, Inness first saw works by the Impressionists in an exhibition he visited, but he thought little of that new style of painting.

"In 1878, Inness's fortunes improved when Thomas B. Clarke, a prominent New York art dealer, became his agent. He took a studio in the New York University Building and bought a house and studio in Montclair, New Jersey. His theories on painting were published inHarper's New Monthly Magazine in 1878 and 1882; in 1882, Charles De Kay, under the pseudonym Henry Eckford, wrote an important critical article about his work. Two years later, a major exhibition of Inness's work was sponsored by John E Sutton, proprietor of the American Art Association, from which the artist emerged as the leading light in American landscape painting, an eminent position he enjoyed for the rest of his career. During the last years of his life, he spent summers traveling and painting in Connecticut, New York, Massachusetts, Virginia, California, and Florida. He and his wife returned to Europe in 1894, when Inness once again visited Paris, as well as Baden-Baden and Munich. On his way home, he died of a stroke in the Bridge of Allan, a small Scottish resort village. On 23 August 1894, the National Academy of Design held an impressive funeral service for Inness, who was by then one of its most illustrious members."

- From "American Paradise: The World of the Hudson River School"

 inness_inness_sunset

Inness, George Sunset at Montclair 1885 Oil on canvas 30 x 40 in (76.2 x 101.6 cm) Columbus Museum of Art, Ohio

 inness_inness_spirit_autumn

Inness, George Spirit of Autumn 1891 Oil on canvas 30 x 45 in (76.2 x 114.3 cm) Private collection

 inness_inness_red_oaks

Inness, George Morning, Catskill Valley (The Red Oaks) 1894 Oil on canvas 35 3/8 x 53 3/4 in (89.9 x 136.5 cm) The Santa Barbara Museum of Art, California

 inness_inness_passing_clouds

Inness, George Passing Clouds 1876 Oil on canvas 20 x 30 in (50.8 x 76.2 cm) Private collection

 inness_inness_october

Inness, George October 1886 Oil on canvas 20 x 30 in (50.8 x 76.2 cm) Los Angeles County Museum of Art

 inness_inness_near_village

Inness, George Near the Village, October 1892 Oil on canvas 30 x 45 in (76.2 x 114.3 cm) Cincinnati Art Museum

 inness_inness_medfield

Inness, George Medfield 1877 Oil on canvas 20 x 30 in (50.8 x 76.2 cm) Private collection

 inness_inness_lake_nemi

Inness, George Lake Nemi 1872 Oil on canvas 30 x 45 in (76.2 x 144.3 cm) Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

 inness_inness_early_autumn2

Inness, George Early Autumn, Montclair 1888 Oil on canvas 30 x 45 in (76.2 x 114.3 cm) Montclair Art Museum, New Jersey

 inness_inness_early_autumn

Inness, George Early Autumn, Montclair 1891 Oil on canvas 30 x 45 in (76.2 x 114.3 cm) Delaware Art Museum, Wilmington

 inness_inness_coming_storm

Inness, George The Coming Storm 1878 Oil on canvas 26 x 38 1/2 in (66 x 97.8 cm) Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo