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HOGARTH

(William Hogarth, 1697-1764)

Hogarth, William: English painter and engraver. He was one of the leading British artists of the first half of the 18th century. He was trained as an engraver and by 1720 had established his own business printing billheads, book illustrations and funeral tickets. In his spare time he learnt to paint, firstly at St. Martin's Lane Academy and then under Sir James Thornhill, whose daughter he married in 1729. He made a name for himself with small family groups (e.g. The Wollaston Family, 1730, H.C. Wollaston's Trustees) and conversation pieces (e.g. The Beggar's Opera, one of several versions, c1729, London, Tate Gallery). Around this time he also set himself up as a portrait painter. Shortly afterwards, in c1731, he executed his first series of modern morality paintings, a totally new concept intended for wider dissemination through engraving.A Harlot's Progress (six scenes, destroyed by fire) was followed by A Rake's Progress (c1735, eight scenes, London, Sir John Soane's Museum) and Marriage a la Mode (c1743, six scenes, London, National Gallery). So popular were the engravings of the first series that they were soon pirated, and Hogarth's subsequent campaign against the pirates led to the Copyright Act of 1735. Unfortunately, as well as the engravings sold, he always had difficulty selling the original paintings. Hogarth compared his sequential paintings to theatrical performances, and thus in each series, minor vices and social affectations are incidentally satirized as the main theme - the punishment of a major vice - takes centre stage.

Also the butt of his satire was the prevailing taste for all things French and Italian (a special concern of Hogarth's, as foreign artists were, he felt, robbing him of his livelihood). A related series is The Election(1754, four scenes, London, Sir John Soane's Museum), while an independent painting in a similar vein is O the Roast Beef of Old England (1748, London, National Gallery). This latter painting was inspired by a trip to Calais during which he was arrested as a spy when caught drawing the fortifications, an incident represented at the left of the painting. Despite his by now exacerbated xenophobia, he did attempt to show his ability in the Italian Grand Manner, although the results, e.g.Sigismunda (1759, London, Tate Gallery), are not among his most successful works and were very poorly received.

If anything, the fascinating wealth of anecdotal invention and perceptive caricature in his morality paintings tends to obscure his very considerable abilities as a painter. This ability, most evident in his fluent and vigorous brushwork, is better revealed in his sensitive portraits - although his natural pugnacity and insistence on painting what he saw as the truth precluded him from a successful career in this field. Significantly, among his most accomplished portraits are the vivaciousShrimp Girl and the affectionate Artist's Servants (both London, Tate Gallery), both uncommissioned, while his most acclaimed official portrait was of a friend, Captain Coram (1740, London, Thomas Coram Foundation).

From 1735 to 1755 he ran his own academy in St. Martin's Lane, this being generally credited as an important forerunner of the Royal Academy founded a few years after his death in 1768. Indeed, Hogarth did more than any other artist to establish a credible English school of painting. In the late 1730s he gathered a group of painters together to paint history paintings for presentation to Thomas Coram's Foundation, the exhibition of which was immensely successful. In 1753 he published The Analysis of Beauty, written from the conviction that an artist has a better understanding of the arts than do connoisseurs. An important contribution to contemporary aesthetics, it is notable for Hogarth's espousal of the 'S' line, a line of beauty supposedly inherent in all successful works of visual art. His Painter and his Pug (1745, London, Tate Gallery), a kind of visual manifesto, portrays the artist as personifying solid English common sense, as well as displaying the famous 'S' line on his palette.

- From The Bulfinch Guide to Art History

 

 HOGARTH_HOGARTH_RAKE_IN_BEDLAM

Hogarth, William The rake's progress: the rake in Bedlam 1735 Oil on canvas 62.5 x 75 cm (24 5/8 x 29 1/2 in) Sir John Soane's Museum, London

 HOGARTH_HOGARTH_JOHN_WILKES

Hogarth, William John Wilkes, Esq. 1763 Engraving 14 x 9 1/16 in

 HOGARTH_HOGARTH_FINCHLEY

Hogarth, William The March to Finchley 1750 Etching and engraving 16 5/16 x 21 5/16 in

 HOGARTH_HOGARTH_BRUISER

Hogarth, William The Bruiser 1763 Etching and engraving 13 5/16 x 10 3/16 in

 HOGARTH_HOGARTH_BEER_STREET

Hogarth, William Beer Street 1750 Etching and engraving 14 1/16 x 11 3/4 in

hogarth_David_Garrick_with_His_Wife_Eva-Maria_Veigel_

Hogarth

Hogarth

William Hogarth. David Garrick with His Wife Eva-Maria Veigel "La Violette" or "Violette". 1757. Oil on canvas. Royal Collection, Windsor Castle, UK

hogarth_The_Tavern_Scene

Hogarth

Hogarth

William Hogarth. The Tavern Scene. (A Rake's Progress). 1732-1734. Oil on canvas. Sir John Soane's Museum, London, UK.

hogarth_David_Garrick_with_His_Wife_Eva-Maria_Veigel_

Hogarth

Hogarth

William Hogarth. David Garrick with His Wife Eva-Maria Veigel "La Violette" or "Violette". 1757. Oil on canvas. Royal Collection, Windsor Castle, UK

hogarth_Southwark_Fair

Hogarth

Hogarth

William Hogarth. Southwark Fair. 1733. Oil on canvas. Private collection.

hogarth_The_Distressed_Poet

Hogarth

Hogarth

William Hogarth. The Distressed Poet. 1736. Oil on canvas. City Museum and Art Gallery, Burmingham, UK

hogarth_The_Good_Samaritan

Hogarth

Hogarth

William Hogarth. The Good Samaritan. 1737. Oil on canvas. St. Bartholomew's Hospital, London, UK

hogarth_The_Pool_of_Bethesda

Hogarth

Hogarth

William Hogarth. The Pool of Bethesda. 1736. Oil on canvas. St. Bartholomew's Hospital, London, UK

hogarth_Satan,_Sin_and_Death

Hogarth

Hogarth

William Hogarth. Satan, Sin and Death. 1735-1740. Oil on canvas. Tate Gallery, London, UK.

hogarth_Sarah_Malcolm_in_Prison

Hogarth

Hogarth

William Hogarth. Sarah Malcolm in Prison. 1733. Oil on canvas. National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh, UK

hogarth_Gerard_Anne_Edwards_in_His_Cradle

Hogarth

Hogarth

William Hogarth. Gerard Anne Edwards in His Cradle. 1733. Oil on canvas. The National Trust, Bearsted Collection, Upton House, Edgehill, UK

hogarth_The_Strode_Family

Hogarth

Hogarth

William Hogarth. The Strode Family. c.1738-1742. Oil on canvas. Tate Gallery, London, UK

hogarth_Falstaff_Examining_His_Recruits

Hogarth

Hogarth

William Hogarth. Falstaff Examining His Recruits. 1728. Oil on canvas. Lord Iveagh, London, UK.

hogarth_Lord_Hervey_and_His_Friends

Hogarth

Hogarth

William Hogarth. Lord Hervey and His Friends. c.1738-1739. Oil on canvas. The National Trust, Ickworth, Suffolk, UK.

hogarth_George_Arnold

Hogarth

Hogarth

William Hogarth. George Arnold. c.1740. Oil on canvas. Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, UK.

hogarth_Bishop_Benjamin_Hoadly

Hogarth

Hogarth

William Hogarth. Bishop Benjamin Hoadly. 1743. Oil on canvas. Tate Gallery, London, UK.

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Hogarth

Hogarth

William Hogarth. Mrs. Catherine Edwards. 1739. Oil on canvas. Musee d'Art et d'Histoire, Geneva, Switzerland

hogarth_Mary_Edwards

Hogarth

Hogarth

William Hogarth. Mary Edwards. 1742. Oil on canvas. The Frick Collection, New York, USA

hogarth_The_Marriage_Contract

Hogarth

Hogarth

William Hogarth. The Marriage Contract. 1743. Oil on canvas. National Gallery, London, UK.

hogarth_Shortly_After_the_Marriage

Hogarth

Hogarth

William Hogarth. Shortly After the Marriage. 1743. Oil on canvas. National Gallery, London, UK.

hogarth_The_Visit_to_the_Quack_Doctor

Hogarth

Hogarth

William Hogarth. The Visit to the Quack Doctor. 1743. Oil on canvas. National Gallery, London, UK

hogarth_The_Countess's_Morning_Levee

Hogarth

Hogarth

William Hogarth. The Countess's Morning Levee. 1743. Oil on canvas. National Gallery, London, UK.

hogarth_The_Death_of_the_Earl

Hogarth

Hogarth

William Hogarth. The Death of the Earl. 1743. Oil on canvas. National Gallery, London, UK.

hogarth_The_Denunciation

Hogarth

Hogarth

William Hogarth. The Denunciation. c.1729. Oil on canvas. National Gallery of Ireland, Dublin, Ireland.

hogarth_The_Suicide_of_the_Countess

Hogarth

Hogarth

William Hogarth. The Suicide of the Countess. 1743. Oil on canvas. National Gallery, London, UK.

hogarth_The_Graham_Children

Hogarth

Hogarth

William Hogarth. The Graham Children. 1742. Oil on canvas. Tate Gallery, London, UK.

hogarth_The_Shrimp_Girl

Hogarth

Hogarth

William Hogarth. The Shrimp Girl. c.1740-1743. Oil on canvas. National Gallery, London, UK

hogarth_Self-Portrait_with_Pug-Dog

Hogarth

Hogarth

William Hogarth. Self-Portrait with Pug-Dog. 1745. Oil on canvas. Tate Gallery, London, UK.

hogarth_Hogarth's_Servants

Hogarth

Hogarth

William Hogarth. Hogarth's Servants. c.1750. Oil on canvas. Tate Gallery, London, UK.

hogarth_Moses_Brought_to_Pharoah's_Daughter

Hogarth

Hogarth

William Hogarth. Moses Brought to Pharoah's Daughter. 1746. Oil on canvas. Thomas Coram Foundation for Children, London, UK

hogarth_The_Roast_Beef_of_Old_England_or_Calais_Gate

Hogarth

Hogarth

William Hogarth. The Roast Beef of Old England or Calais Gate. 1748. Oil on canvas. Tate Gallery, London, UK.

hogarth_The_March_to_Finchley

Hogarth

Hogarth

William Hogarth. The March to Finchley. 1749-1750. Oil on canvas. Thomas Coram Foundation for Children, London, UK.

hogarth_An_Election_Entertainment

Hogarth

Hogarth

William Hogarth. An Election Entertainment. 1755. Oil on canvas. Sir John Soane's Museum, London, UK.

hogarth_Canvassing_for_Votes

Hogarth

Hogarth

William Hogarth. Canvassing for Votes. 1755. Oil on canvas. Sir John Soane's Museum, London, UK.

hogarth_The_Theft_of_a_Watch

Hogarth

Hogarth

William Hogarth. The Theft of a Watch. c.1731. Oil on canvas. Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, UK.

hogarth_The_Polling

Hogarth

Hogarth

William Hogarth. The Polling. 1755. Oil on canvas. Sir John Soane's Museum, London, UK.

hogarth_Chairing_the_Member

Hogarth

Hogarth

William Hogarth. Chairing the Member. 1755. Oil on canvas. Sir John Soane's Museum, London, UK.

hogarth_The_Bench

Hogarth

Hogarth

William Hogarth. The Bench. c.1758. Oil on canvas. Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, UK.

hogarth_Hogarth_Painting_the_Comic_Muse

Hogarth

Hogarth

William Hogarth. Hogarth Painting the Comic Muse. c.1757. National Portrait Gallery, London, UK.

hogarth_The_Lady's_Last_Stake

Hogarth

Hogarth

William Hogarth. The Lady's Last Stake. 1758-1759. Oil on canvas. Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, NY, USA.

hogarth_Sigismonda

Hogarth

Hogarth

William Hogarth. Sigismonda. 1758-1759. Oil on canvas. Tate Gallery, London, UK

hogarth_Beer_Street

Hogarth

Hogarth

William Hogarth. Beer Street. 1751. Engraving. The British Museum, London, UK.

hogarth_Captain_Thomas_Coram

Hogarth

Hogarth

William Hogarth. Captain Thomas Coram. 1740. Oil on canvas. Thomas Coram Foundation for Children, London, UK

hogarth_Gin_Lane

Hogarth

Hogarth

William Hogarth. Gin Lane. 1751. Engraving. The British Museum, London, UK

hogarth_South_Sea_Scheme

Hogarth

Hogarth

William Hogarth. South Sea Scheme. 1721. Engraving. The British Museum, London, UK

hogarth_The_Wedding_of_Stephen_Bechingham_and_Mary_Cox

Hogarth

Hogarth

William Hogarth. The Wedding of Stephen Bechingham and Mary Cox. c.1730. Oil on canvas. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, USA.

hogarth_Hudibras'_First_Adventure

Hogarth

Hogarth

William Hogarth. Hudibras' First Adventure. 1726. Engraving. The British Museum, London, UK.

hogarth_Benjamin_Hoadly

Hogarth

Hogarth

William Hogarth. Benjamin Hoadly. c.1738. Oil on canvas. Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, UK

hogarth_A_Scene_from_the_Beggar's_Opera

Hogarth

Hogarth

William Hogarth. A Scene from the Beggar's Opera. c.1728. Oil on canvas. The National Gallery of Art, Washington DC, USA.

hogarth_The_Mackinen_Children

Hogarth

Hogarth

William Hogarth. The Mackinen Children. 1747. Oil on canvas. National Gallery of Ireland, Dublin, Ireland.

hogarth_The_Western_Family

Hogarth

Hogarth

William Hogarth. The Western Family. 1730s. Oil on canvas. National Gallery of Ireland, Dublin, Ireland.

hogarth_The_Fishing_Party

Hogarth

Hogarth

William Hogarth. The Fishing Party. c.1730. Oil on canvas. Dulwich College Picture Gallery, London, UK.

hogarth_The_Ashley_and_Popple_Family

Hogarth

Hogarth

William Hogarth. The Ashley and Popple Family. 1730. Oil on canvas. Royal Collection, UK.

hogarth_After_(Outdoor_Scene)

Hogarth

Hogarth

William Hogarth. After (Outdoor Scene). c.1731. Oil on canvas. Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, UK.

hogarth_Surrounded_by_Artists_and_Professors

Hogarth

Hogarth

William Hogarth. Surrounded by Artists and Professors. (A Rake's Progress). 1732-1734. Oil on canvas. Sir John Soane's Museum, London, UK.