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CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio Biography (c. 1572-1610)

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Italian painter, born at Caravaggio, near Bergamo, and apprenticed in 1584 in Milan to Simone Peterzano, who claimed to be a pupil of Titian . By 1592 , with both parents dead, he had run through his inheritance. Soon afterwards he left for Rome, where he lived in poverty, did various hack work, and then painted fruits and flowers in the studio of Cavaliere d'Arpino . Two highly finished early half-lengths of youths with prominent still lifes are the Sick Bacchus and the Boy with a Basket of Fruit (both Rome, Borghese Gal.). Later, he sold his work through a dealer and the Cardsharpers (Fort Worth, Kimbell Mus.) attracted the attention of Cardinal del Monte who took Caravaggio into his household, probably around 1595 – 6 . The Cardsharps and the contemporary Gypsy Fortune-Teller (Rome, Capitoline Mus.) were a new genre in which contemporary types, painted from life, enact anecdotal tableaux of deceit.

Del Monte was at the centre of the most cultured circles in Rome and Caravaggio made contact with advanced patrons such as Vincenzo Giustiniani and with leading poets such as Gaspare Murtola and Giambattista Marino who both celebrated his paintings. Music was especially important and it provided the theme for the Musicians (New York, Met. Mus.) and the Lute-Player (St Petersburg, Hermitage), in both of which lightly draped androgynous musicians embody an unattainable world of beauty and refinement.

Caravaggio's first major Roman religious commission was for the Contarelli chapel in S. Luigi dei Francesi where the two lateral paintings (both in situ) were unveiled in 1600 . In these works Caravaggio first made expressive use of extreme chiaroscuro and (especially in the Calling of S. Matthew) he depicted the story as a contemporary scene. Their realism and dramatic power created a sensation, making Caravaggio overnight the most celebrated painter in Rome. Nevertheless, the church authorities rejected his first version of the chapel's altarpiece depicting the Inspiration of S. Matthew (destr., formerly Berlin, Kaiser Friedrich Mus.). This was snapped up for his private collection by Giustiniani , who arranged for Caravaggio to make a more conventional replacement (in situ).

The Contarelli chapel paintings were the first of six major Roman church commissions. In four of these Caravaggio was asked to change his first efforts, or his work was rejected. These episodes included the rejection of his deeply moving masterpiece the Death of the Virgin (Paris, Louvre), which was then bought by the Duke of Mantua on the advice of Rubens . Differing circumstances lay behind these setbacks but the core problem was Caravaggio's insistent realism and his use of humble models. While this antagonized the more conservative clergy it was completely in line with much Counter-Reformation feeling as expressed, for example, by the Oratorians.

Caravaggio's quarrelsome and antisocial behaviour spiralled out of control during this period. He was sued and imprisoned for circulating obscene doggerels about a rival painter, Baglione , and according to Malvasia he threatened to knock Guido Reni's head off for ‘stealing his style’. He was also involved in a string of violent incidents with the swordsmen and whores of the Roman streets, ending with his killing of Ranuccio Tomassoni in a gang fight in May 1606 . Fleeing Rome , he was sentenced to death in absentia.

Read more: Caravaggio (Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio) Biography - ( 1571 – 1610 )

 CARAVAGGIO_STTHOMAS

CARAVAGGIO, Michelangelo Merisi da The Incredulity of Saint Thomas 1601-02 Oil on canvas 42 1/8 x 57 1/2 in. Neues Palais, Potsdam

 CARAVAGGIO_ST_PETER

CARAVAGGIO, Michelangelo Merisi da The Crucifixion of Saint Peter 1600-1601 Oil on canvas 90 1/2 x 70 in. Cerasi Chapel, Santa Maria del Popola, Rome

 CARAVAGGIO_MATTHEW

CARAVAGGIO, Michelangelo Merisi da The Inspiration of Saint Matthew 1602 Oil on canvas 9' 8 1/2" x 6' 2 1/2" Contarelli Chapel, Church of San Luigi dei Francesi, Rome

 CARAVAGGIO_JUDITH

CARAVAGGIO, Michelangelo Merisi da Judith Beheading Holofernes c. 1598 Oil on canvas 56 3/4 x 76 3/4 in. Galleria Nazionale dell'Arte Antica, Rome

 CARAVAGGIO_EMMAUS

CARAVAGGIO, Michelangelo Merisi da Supper at Emmaus c. 1600-1601 Oil on canvas 54 3/4 x 76 3/4 in. National Gallery, London

 CARAVAGGIO_DECAPITATION

CARAVAGGIO, Michelangelo Merisi da The Decapitation of Saint John the Baptist 1607-08 Oil on canvas 11' 9 1/2" x 17' 3" Pro-Cathedral of Saint John the Baptist, La Valletta, Malta

 CARAVAGGIO_CARAVAGGIO_STIGMA_DTL

Caravaggio, Michelangelo Merisi da The Stigmatization of Saint Francis Detail c. 1596 Oil on canvas 36 7/8 x 50 5/16 in (92.5 x 127.8 cm) Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford

 CARAVAGGIO_CARAVAGGIO_STIGMA

Caravaggio, Michelangelo Merisi da The Stigmatization of Saint Francis c. 1596 Oil on canvas 36 7/8 x 50 5/16 in (92.5 x 127.8 cm) Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford

 CARAVAGGIO_CARAVAGGIO_ST_PAUL

Caravaggio, Michelangelo Merisi da The Conversion of Saint Paul 1600-1601 Oil on canvas 90 1/2 x 70 in Cerasi Chapel, Santa Maria del Popolo, Rome

 CARAVAGGIO_CARAVAGGIO_ISAAC_DTL

Caravaggio, Michelangelo Merisi da The Sacrifice of Isaac Detail 1603 Oil on canvas 41 x 53 1/8 in (104 x 135 cm) Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence

 CARAVAGGIO_CARAVAGGIO_ISAAC

Caravaggio, Michelangelo Merisi da The Sacrifice of Isaac 1603 Oil on canvas 41 x 53 1/8 in (104 x 135 cm) Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence

 CARAVAGGIO_CARAVAGGIO_AMOR_DTL

Caravaggio, Michelangelo Merisi da Amor Vincit Omnia Detail c. 1601-02 Oil on canvas 75 1/4 x 58 1/4 in (191 x 148 cm) Gemaeldegalerie, Berlin

 CARAVAGGIO_CARAVAGGIO_AMOR

Caravaggio, Michelangelo Merisi da Amor Vincit Omnia c. 1601-02 Oil on canvas 75 1/4 x 58 1/4 in (191 x 148 cm) Gemaeldegalerie, Berlin

 CARAVAGGIO_CALLING

CARAVAGGIO The Calling of Saint Matthew 1599-1600 Oil on canvas 10' 7 1/2" X 11' 2" Contarelli Chapel, Church of San Luigi dei Francesi, Rome

 CARAVAGGIO_BACCHUS

CARAVAGGIO, Michelangelo Merisi da Bacchus c. 1597 Oil on canvas 37 3/8 x 33 1/2 in. Uffizi, Florence

caravaggio_Narcissus

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. Narcissus. c.1597. Oil on canvas. Palazzo Barberini, Rome, Italy

caravaggio_Boy_with_a_Basket_of_Fruit

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. Boy with a Basket of Fruit. c.1593-1594. Oil on canvas. Galleria Borghese, Rome, Italy

caravaggio_Penitent_Magdalene

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. Penitent Magdalene. c.1593-1594. Oil on canvas. Galleria Doria Pamphilj, Rome, Italy

caravaggio_The_Cardsharps_(I_Bari)

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. The Cardsharps (I Bari). c.1594-1595. Oil on canvas. Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth, TX, USA

caravaggio_The_Musicians

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. The Musicians. c.1595. Oil on canvas. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, USA

caravaggio_The_Lute-Player

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. The Lute-Player. c.1595-1596. Oil on canvas. The Hermitage, St. Petersburg, Russia.

caravaggio_The_Rest_on_the_Flight_into_Egypt

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. The Rest on the Flight into Egypt. c.1595. Oil on canvas. Galleria Doria Pamphilj, Rome, Italy

caravaggio_St _Francis_in_Ecstasy

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. St. Francis in Ecstasy. c.1596. Oil on canvas. Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford, CT, USA

caravaggio_Bacchus

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. Bacchus. c.1597. Oil on canvas. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence, Italy

caravaggio_Medusa

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. Medusa. c.1598. Oil on canvas. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence, Italy

caravaggio_The_Fortune-Teller

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. The Fortune-Teller. c.1598-1599. Oil on canvas. The Louvre, Paris, France

caravaggio_Boy_Peeling_a_Fruit

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. Boy Peeling a Fruit. c.1593-1594. Oil on canvas. Private collection, Rome, Italy

caravaggio_The_Conversion_of_Mary_Magdalen

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. The Conversion of Mary Magdalen. c.1598-1599. Oil on canvas. Institute of Fine Arts, Detroit, IL, USA

caravaggio_St _Catherine_of_Alexandria

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. St. Catherine of Alexandria. c.1599. Oil on canvas. Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection, Lugano-Castagnola, Switzerland

caravaggio_Judith_Beheading_Holofernes

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. Judith Beheading Holofernes. c.1599. Oil on canvas. Palazzo Barberini, Rome, Italy

caravaggio_The_Martyrdom_of_St

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. The Martyrdom of St. Matthew. 1599-1600. Oil on canvas. San Luigi dei Francesi, Rome, Italy

caravaggio_The_Calling_of_St

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. The Calling of St. Matthew. 1599-1600. Oil on canvas. San Luigi dei Francesi, Rome, Italy

caravaggio_The_Conversion_of_St

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. The Conversion of St. Paul. 1600-1601. Oil on canvas. Santa Maria del Popolo, Rome, Italy

caravaggio_The_Crucifixion_of_St

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. The Crucifixion of St. Peter. 1600-1601. Oil on canvas. Santa Maria del Popolo, Rome, Italy

caravaggio_Supper_at_Emmaus

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. Supper at Emmaus. 1601. Oil on canvas. The National Gallery, London, UK

caravaggio_Still_Life_with_a_Basket_of_Fruit

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. Still Life with a Basket of Fruit. c.1601. Oil on canvas. Pinacoteca Ambrosiana, Milan, Italy

caravaggio_Cupid

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. Cupid. c.1601. Oil on canvas. Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemaldegalerie, Berlin, Germany

caravaggio_Jupiter,_Neptune_and_Pluto

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. Jupiter, Neptune and Pluto. c.1599-1600. Oil on plaster. Villa Ludovisi, Rome, Italy

caravaggio_Death_of_the_Virgin

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. Death of the Virgin. c.1601-1603. Oil on canvas. The Louvre, Paris, France

caravaggio_St _Matthew_and_the_Angel

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. St. Matthew and the Angel. 1603. Oil on canvas. San Luigi dei Francesi, Rome, Italy

caravaggio_St _John_the_Baptist

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. St. John the Baptist. 1602. Oil on canvas. Galleria Capitolina, Rome, Italy.

caravaggio_The_Betrayal_of_Christ

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. The Betrayal of Christ. 1602-1603. Oil on canvas. National Gallery of Ireland, Dublin, Ireland

caravaggio_bcgallery

CARAVAGGIO

http://www.abcgallery.com/C/caravaggio/caravaggio34.html

caravaggio_The_Entombment

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. The Entombment. c.1602-1604. Oil on canvas. Pinacoteca Vaticana, Rome, Italy

caravaggio_The_Sacrifice_of_Isaac

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. The Sacrifice of Isaac. c.1603. Oil on canvas. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence, Italy

caravaggio_St _John_the_Baptist

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. St. John the Baptist. c.1603-1605. Oil on canvas. Nelson-Atkins Museum, Kansas, USA

caravaggio_Madonna_di_Loreto

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. Madonna di Loreto. c.1603-1606. Oil on canvas. San Agostino, Rome, Italy

caravaggio_Madonna_dei_Palafrenieri

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. Madonna dei Palafrenieri. 1605-1606. Oil on canvas. Galleria Borghese, Rome, Italy

caravaggio_Ecce_Homo

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. Ecce Homo. c.1600. Oil on canvas. Palazzo Rosso, Genoa, Italy

caravaggio_St _Jerome

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. St. Jerome. c.1605. Oil on canvas. Galleria Borghese, Rome, Italy

caravaggio_Supper_at_Emmaus

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. Supper at Emmaus. 1606. Oil on canvas. Galleria Brera, Milan, Italy

caravaggio_Seven_Works_of_Mercy

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. Seven Works of Mercy. 1606-1607. Oil on canvas. Pio Monte della Misericordia, Naples, Italy

caravaggio_Madonna_of_the_Rosary

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. Madonna of the Rosary. c.1606-1607. Oil on canvas. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, Austria

caravaggio_The_Flagellation_of_Christ

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. The Flagellation of Christ. 1607. Oil on canvas. Museo di Capodimonte, Naples, Italy

caravaggio_St _Jerome

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. St. Jerome. c.1607-1608. Oil on canvas. Co-Cathedral of St. John, Valetta, Malta

caravaggio_Portrait_of_Alof_de_Wignacourt

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. Portrait of Alof de Wignacourt. c.1607-1608. Oil on canvas. The Louvre, Paris, France

caravaggio_The_Beheading_of_St

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. The Beheading of St. John the Baptist. 1607-1608. Oil on canvas. Co-Cathedral of St. John, Valetta, Malta.

caravaggio_Sleeping_Cupid

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. Sleeping Cupid. 1608. Oil on canvas. Palazzo Pitti, Florence, Italy

caravaggio_The_Burial_of_St

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. The Burial of St. Lucy. 1608. Oil on canvas. Museo Bellomo, Syracuse, Italy

caravaggio_Flagellation_of_Christ

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. Flagellation of Christ. c.1606-1607. Oil on canvas. Musée des Beaux-Arts, Rouen, France

caravaggio_The_Raising_of_Lazarus

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. The Raising of Lazarus. c.1608-1609. Oil on canvas. Museo Regionale, Messina, Italy

caravaggio_The_Adoration_of_the_Shepherds

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. The Adoration of the Shepherds. 1608-1609. Oil on canvas. Museo Regionale, Messina, Italy

caravaggio_The_Cricifixion_of_St

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. The Cricifixion of St. Andrew. c.1609-1610. Oil on canvas. Museum of Art, Clevelend, USA

caravaggio_Salome_with_the_Head_of_St

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. Salome with the Head of St. John the Baptist. c.1609-1610. Oil on canvas. The National Gallery, London, UK

caravaggio_The_Martyrdom_of_St

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. The Martyrdom of St. Ursula. 1610. Oil on canvas. Banco Commerciale Italiana, Naples, Italy

caravaggio_David_with_the_Head_of_Goliath

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. David with the Head of Goliath. c.1610. Oil on canvas. Galleria Borghese, Rome, Italy

caravaggio_Portrait_of_a_Knight_of_Malta

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. Portrait of a Knight of Malta. c.1608. Oil on canvas. Palazzo Pitti, Florence, Italy

caravaggio_The_Tooth_Puller

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. The Tooth Puller. Oil on canvas. Palazzo Pitti, Florence, Italy.

caravaggio_David_with_the_Head_of_Goliath

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. David with the Head of Goliath. c.1601-1602. Oil on canvas. Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain

caravaggio_San_Luigi_dei_Francesi,_Rome,_Italy

CARAVAGGIO

Interior of Contarelli Chapel. San Luigi dei Francesi, Rome, Italy.

caravaggio_Nativity_with_Saints_Francis_and_Lawrence

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. Nativity with Saints Francis and Lawrence. 1609. Oil on canvas. San Lorenzo, Palermo, Italy

caravaggio_The_Sacrifice_of_Isaac

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. The Sacrifice of Isaac. 1598-1599. Oil on canvas. Johnson Collection, Princeton, NJ, USA

caravaggio_Portrait_of_Maffeo_Barberini

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. Portrait of Maffeo Barberini. c. 1598-1600. Oil on canvas. Private collection, Florence, Italy

caravaggio_St _John_the_Baptist

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. St. John the Baptist. c.1610. Oil on canvas. Galleria Borghese, Rome, Italy.

caravaggio_Self-Portrait_as_Sick_Bacchus

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. Self-Portrait as Sick Bacchus. c.1593-1594. Oil on canvas. Galleria Borghese, Rome, Italy

caravaggio_Boy_Bitten_by_a_Lizard

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio. Boy Bitten by a Lizard. c.1593-1594. Oil on canvas. The National Gallery, London, UK